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Examining the period between the Ta’if accord and the assassination of Rafiq Hariri, one can notice the following:

1- Confessionalism remained the dominant factor in Lebanese politics and society;
2- The corrupted political elite who responsible for the civil war were able to regenerate itself once again in the political life.
3- The civil society which did not effectively exist before1975, was unable to exert any influence on the political life.
4- Syria abstained from implementing the Ta’if accord. It controlled Lebanon’s political, administrative, military and foreign affairs, supported its allies and their encroachments, and violated the constitution, and initiated the rise of Troika. In opposition with the Ta’if accord, Syria didn’t disarm Hezbollah nor the Palestinian guerrillas having thus created Prob- lems for the future.
5- Christians, frustrated by Syrian presence in Lebanon, launched an opposition under the umbrella of Bkirki, Kurnat Shihwan and General Aoun. 6- Syria controlled Lebanon, making the latter a weak partner in a series of treaties and conventions.
7- Israel’s withdrawal from in the south of Lebanon in 2000 forced Syria to keep Lebanon within the sphere of conflict with Israel (The Shebaa farms). 8- Syria and Iran maintained their common interests in the region, namely in Iraq, Palestine and Lebanon. Both countries felt confronted with the American policy ever since the events of September 2001 and the invasion of Iraq two years later. The regime in Damascus found itself isolated targeted by the American new policy in the Middle East, and thus signed a defensive treaty with Iran in June 2006. 9- Lebanese debt increased to a dangerous level. As a result, the middle class shrunk, the low class expanded and immigration rose.

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